The inter-agency network is composed of 14 UN entities from a spectrum sectors including peacekeeping, political affairs, justice, human rights, humanitarian, health, gender equality and women's empowerment. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General Pramila Patten chairs the network which represents a concerted effort by the United Nations to improve coordination and accountability, amplify programming and advocacy, and support national efforts to prevent sexual violence and respond effectively to the needs of survivors. Senior military personnel, including former commanders of international peace support operations, United Nations officials, policy makers and other experts met to discuss how to improve political and military responses to protect women in war.
It presents selections of contrasting viewpoints on four central questions about sexual violence : what causes it; whether it is a serious problem; how society should address it; and how it can be reduced. The book is part of the Opposing Viewpoints series. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Surveys of victims of crime have been undertaken in many cities and countries, using a common methodology to aid comparability, and have generally included questions on sexual violence. The United Nations has conducted extensive surveys to determine the level of sexual violence in different societies. No distinction has been made in these figures between rape by strangers and that by intimate partners.
Sexual abusealso referred to as molestationis abusive sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is often perpetrated using force or by taking advantage of another. The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or often pejoratively molester. The use of a child, or other individuals younger than the age of consentfor sexual stimulation is referred to as child sexual abuse or statutory rape.
Sexual violence includes, but is not limited to rape. Although there is no agreed upon definition of sexual violence, commonly applied ones encompass any act of a sexual nature or attempt to obtain a sexual act carried out through coercion. Sexual violence also includes physical and psychological violence directed at a person's sexuality, including unwanted comments or advances, or acts of traffic such as forced prostitution or sexual slavery.
One of the most common forms of sexual violence around the world is that which is perpetrated by an intimate partner, leading to the conclusion that one of the most important risk factors for people in terms of their vulnerability to sexual assault is being married or cohabiting with a partner. Other factors influencing the risk of sexual violence include:. Young women are usually found to be more at risk of rape than older women.
Violence against women VAWalso known as gender-based violence  and sexual and gender-based violence SGBV  are violent acts when they are primarily or exclusively committed against women or girls. Such violence is often considered a form of hate crime committed against women or girls specifically because they are female. VAW has a very long history, though the incidents and intensity of such violence has varied over time and even today varies between societies.
Sexual violence by intimate partners deals with the incidence by country of physical abuseforced sex, or marital rape within the context of domestic violence. Intimate partner sexual violence is defined by any unwanted sexual contact or activity by an intimate partner in order to control an individual through fear, threats, or violence. Domestic sexual violencesuch as forced sex or marital rape, may follow or be part of physical abuse, but is not always the case.
Causes of sexual violence are debated and explanations of the cause include military conquestsocioeconomicsangerpowersadismsexual pleasurepsychopathyethical standardslawsattitudes toward the victimsand evolutionary pressures. Clinical psychologist  Nicholas Groth has described several different types of rape. The goal of this rapist is to humiliatedebase and hurt their victim; they express their contempt for their victim through physical violence and profane language.
There are different explanations for the causes of these high numbers of violence; scholars have looked at the cultural roots as well as economic policies and changes that have led to a recent growth in the amount of gender-based violence. They look into the culture of "machismo" that has created a feeling of superiority or entitlement for men in Mexico. Women, on the other hand, have been traditionally put into roles of subservience and have had less access to knowledge and power to discuss and change the current norms. They call violence against women "an expression of male power," and they include institutional forms of violence, such as lack of access to resources or types of freedom.