They delivered a small dose of estrogen and a testosterone blocker and set in motion changes that Harper, who was designated male at birth and raised as a boy, had imagined since childhood. Harper's timing was deliberate—the year-old nationally ranked runner wanted one more race before disrupting her hormones because she knew she'd never run as fast again. The testosterone that courses through a man's body after puberty triggers and maintains a slew of physical changes: Men, whose levels of the hormone are usually some 10 to 15 times those of women, typically have larger muscles, denser bones, and higher fractions of lean body mass than women.
Transgender hormone therapy of the female-to-male FTM type, also known as masculinizing hormone therapyis a form of hormone therapy and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from feminine or androgynous to masculine. It is one of two types of transgender hormone therapy the other being male-to-femaleand is predominantly used to treat transgender men and other transmasculine individuals. Some intersex people also receive this form of therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the assigned sex or later if the assignment proves to be incorrect.
In transgender men, or trans masculine people FTMthe most common medication used for transition is testosterone. Administration of testosterone via transdermal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, or oral routes lowers serum estradiol levels, raises serum testosterone levels, and results in the development of typical male secondary sex characteristics. Irreversible changes include: deepening of the voice, increase in facial and body hair growth, clitoral enlargement clitoromegalyand thickened facial bone structure.
Gender incongruence is defined as a condition in which an individual self-identifies and desires to have physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. The gender affirmation process must be performed by a multidisciplinary team. The main goal of the hormone treatment is to start the development of male physical characteristics by means of testosterone administration that may be offered to transgender men who are 18 years old or over.
Masculinizing hormone therapy is used to induce the physical changes in your body caused by male hormones during puberty secondary sex characteristics to promote the matching of your gender identity and body gender congruence. If masculinizing hormone therapy is started before the changes of female puberty begins, female secondary sex characteristics, such as the development of breasts, can be avoided. Masculinizing hormone therapy is also referred to as cross-sex hormone therapy.
Back to Gender dysphoria. Treatment for gender dysphoria aims to help people with the condition live the way they want to, in their preferred gender identity. What this means will vary from person to person, and is different for children, young people and adults.
Transitioning refers to any physical, mental, or emotional change that a person makes in order to better reflect their gender identity. Some transgender people identify as neither male nor female, or as a combination of male and female. Everyone—transgender or not—has a gender identity.
Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features.
Gender-affirming treatment of transgender people requires a multidisciplinary approach in which endocrinologists play a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to review recent data on hormonal treatment of this population and its effect on physical, psychological, and mental health. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender women include estrogens in combination with androgen-lowering medications.