Midget bipolar cell

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NCBI Bookshelf. Figure Midget bipolar cells imb, fmb have larger axon terminals at greater distances from the fovea retinal eccentricity of 4.

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A midget cell is one type of retinal ganglion cell RGC. Midget cells originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retinaand project to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus LGN. The axons of midget cells travel through the optic nerve and optic tractultimately synapsing with parvocellular cells in the LGN.

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If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email. Recent studies suggested that different types of OFF bipolar cells express specific types of ionotropic AMPA or kainate glutamate receptors GluRs at their contacts with cone pedicles. However, the question of which GluR type is expressed by which type of OFF bipolar cell in primate retina is still open.

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The specialized cone pathways of the central fovea of human and monkey retinas have the least convergence and the greatest resolution capabilities of the visual system. The midget pathways consist of midget bipolar cells and midget ganglion cells, the latter of which project to individual parvocellular layer cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus in the brain. Because of the need for the high acuity midget pathways also to be organized into ON- and OFF-center channels like the diffuse cone pathways for maximization of contrast, it means that every cone of the fovea will have dual midget pathways.

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To date, 12 macaque bipolar cell types have been described. This list includes all morphology types first outlined by Polyak using the Golgi method in the primate retina and subsequently identified by other researchers using electron microscopy EM combined with the Golgi method, serial section transmission EM SSTEMand immunohistochemical imaging. Retinal circuits formed by GB and DB3b cells are thought to substantiate the psychophysical finding of fast rod signals in mesopic vision.

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OFF bipolar cells in the macaque retina were recently classified into five types: flat midget bipolar FMB and diffuse bipolar DB 1, 2, 3a, and 3b. We examined all parallel pathways from cone photoreceptors via OFF bipolar cells to parasol and midget ganglion cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy. We then mapped the distributions of all three basal contacts of the five OFF bipolar cell types in the same area of cone pedicles.

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Bipolar cells were studied in Golgi - Colonnier-stained whole mounts of macaque monkey retinae. A piece of retina, at 6 - 7 mm eccentricity, was particularly well stained for the analysis of the different bipolar cell types. Many midget bipolar cells were encountered and the dichotomy into flat and invaginating midget bipolars was confirmed. Six types of diffuse cone bipolar cell are distinguished.

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The specialized cone pathways of the central fovea of human and monkey retinas have the least convergence and the greatest resolution capabilities of the visual system. Figure 1. The illustration is taken from Polyak,

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Different types of retinal ganglion cell show differences in their response properties. Here we investigated the question of whether these differences are related to the distribution of the synaptic input to the dendritic tree. We measured the distribution and density of synaptic input to the dendrites of midget and parasol ganglion cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled by dye injection into parvocellular or magnocellular regions of the lateral geniculate nucleus and subsequently photo-filled.

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